PANDEMIC AND BIOLOGICAL THREATS: WAY FORWARD FOR PAKISTAN

Authors

  • Afzaal Malik
  • Fawad Hameed
  • Babar Khalil Khalil

Keywords:

COVID-19, Spanish Flue, Human Security, National Security, NCOC

Abstract

Biological hazards pose non-traditional threat to human security, primarily due to their devastating nature and ever-changing character. Coronavirus (COVID-19) is the black swan of 21st century which has played havoc with states and public across the
globe without sparing rich and poor. Pakistan is also confronting human security challenges with dire consequences on national security. It includes uneven distribution of health care infrastructure, lack of adequately trained paramedical staff, nonavailability of critical health care equipment and absence of research and development in disease control and prevention. Although, Pakistan managed to cope up with the massive health emergency through quick health care optimisation and build up measures under the framework of National Command and Operational Centre (NCOC), yet the experience has raised questions on the viability of existing pandemic response framework in absence of such central body. This paper is an endeavour to carryout objective analysis of response framework of contemporary world in limiting COVID-19 pandemic to draw relevant inferences to refine the response framework against future challenges.

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Published

2021-12-31

How to Cite

Malik, A. ., Hameed, F., & Khalil, B. K. (2021). PANDEMIC AND BIOLOGICAL THREATS: WAY FORWARD FOR PAKISTAN. NDU Journal, 1(35), 48–60. Retrieved from https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/79