NDU Journal https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site <p>NDU Journal is an annual publication of National Defence University, the premier institution for security and strategic studies. The journal is a unique publication of the country, which primarily deals with the national security issues of Pakistan. The journal has its own standing among the students, researchers, experts, policy makers and intelligentsia. Keeping the flag high, the articles appearing in the journal are selected after a rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad.</p> en-US editor@ndu.journal (Editor) webmaster@ndu.journal (Webmaster) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0500 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 MENACING DIMENSIONS OF PRIVATE MILITARY AND SECURITY ENTITIES https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/125 <p><em>Private military and security entities (PMSEs) are commercially organised non-governmental bodies engaged in the provision of services entailing armed fighting. The concept of employing these entities has been practised since antiquity. Their evolution is owed to the belief that they have the capability to augment the state’s security structures and enhance its capacity to project power. Because of their recently developed capability to undertake diversified activities, including clandestine functions, the trend to use these entities across the globe has expanded in the last couple of decades. It is also believed that better efficiency and economy can be achieved by outsourcing non-core military activities to the private sector. Another recent development that has altered the character of some PMSEs is their transformation into corporate entities with well-defined hierarchical structures, sophisticated business practices and globalised operations which have given them the potential to affect international security and interstate relations. By virtue of that, they have become an effective instrument of foreign policy. However, being external to the established state structures of security governance these entities pose multifaceted challenges for traditional security systems with ramifications for national and international security. The concept facilitates the development of private power at the cost of state power and contradicts the realist assumption that the state as a unitary actor, which holds a central position in the global political order, must retain a monopoly on the means of violence. Therefore, they need to be properly regulated and integrated into the state structures lest their potential to undermine the existing security structures exceeds their positive contribution.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Arshad, Dr Muhammad. 2022. "Menacing Dimensions of Private Military and Security Entities." <em>NDU Journal </em>36: 1-16.</p> Dr Muhammad Arshad Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/125 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0500 HINDUTVA AT CROSSROADS: PHASED HISTORY, PREJUDICIAL PRESENT, AND SEGREGATED FUTURE https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/126 <p><em>Right-wing extremism has emerged as a global phenomenon manifest in various forms and locations of exclusionary nationalism. Following a concise comparative discourse on the historical and modern resemblances between fascist ideologues, this paper focuses on Hindutva or Hindu fundamentalism which has metamorphosed into a right-wing violent entity. Beginning with a historical outlining of Hindutva – which phases its history into ancient, modern twentieth-century, and postmodern to contemporary paradigms – this discourse moves onto merging the theoretical foundations of Hindutva to its practices of violence and discrimination against minority groups and depressed classes of India and for Indian foreign policy towards other South Asian countries. The second part of this paper studies Hindutva and its paraphernalia as tools of populist politics in India – including but not limited to propaganda through social media, saffron brigades of ‘sevaks’ or fringe paramilitary groups, and civic organizations advocating to restore Hindu culture. Findings of this paper include: a) Hindutva is not an isolated phenomenon but a piece in the global machinery of far-right politics in the contemporary era; b) elements and measures like ‘anti-Romeo’ squads and ban on meat-eating are used as pretexts for multidimensional violence against Muslims, Christians, Dalits, and other lower classes; c) the current Indian occupation of Kashmir can be seen as an extension of Hindutva; and d) by defining Hindus as ‘insiders’ and Muslims as ‘outsiders’, the Modi regime has irreparably damaged the South Asian communal ethic of coexistence which has laid the ground for a segregated future for the region.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p><em>Virk, Hassan F., Fawra Batool and Sania Muneer. 2022. "Hindutva at Crossroads: Phased History, Prejudicial Present, and Segregated Future." NDU Journal 36: 17-25.</em></p> <p> </p> Hassan F. Virk; Farwa Batool, Sania Muneer Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/126 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0500 ADOPTING A STRATEGY OF URGENCY TO ACHIEVE CYBER RESILIENCE https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/127 <p><em>Cyberspace has emerged as a distinct arena of power contestation. It is increasingly being viewed as a potent instrument capable of advancing "in" and "cross" domain interests of nation-states. National cyber drives by the contemporaries as well as the overt militarisation of this domain have also been covered to reflect the strategic priority of countries while hinting at the potential of cyber threat which exists during peace and war. The paper also presents the national cyber environment which cuts across the civil as well as defence sectors primarily relying upon public indicators and statistics. Like the physical/ traditional spaces of warfighting, cyberspace has also been visualised as a constituent of critical and vital space/ assets falling in corresponding threat zones. Finally, the author suggests quitting the policy of laissez-faire by proposing a framework to overcome existing gaps/ challenges and achieve cyber resilience.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Anjum, Ali. 2022. "Adopting Strategy of Urgency to Achieve Cyber Resilience." <em>NDU Journal </em>36: 26-37.</p> Ali Anjum Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/127 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0500 CRISIS PERCEPTION ON CPEC: HOW INDIA IS USING REGIONAL AND PAKISTAN’S DOMESTIC ISSUES IN MANUFACTURING GLOBAL PSEUDO DISCOURSE https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/128 <p><em>India is trying to create misperceptions against Pakistan at the international level through an information campaign as revealed by European Union DisinfoLab. The main aim behind Indian information operation is to discredit CPEC at the domestic as well as global level. To explore this, based on the secondary data, the paper considers the issues related to Pakistan’s domestic and regional politics. The crisis perception model of Billings et al. is employed as a theoretical framework. The findings of the study reveal that if the situation of crisis perception will prevail at the global scale, it could significantly influence the cost of the project; the perceived probability of the loss could be in the form of human loss and security situation in Balochistan. Moreover, it is need of time to sense the crisis perception based on contributory factors and magnitude, define these factors as the crisis which indicates the significant extent of the crisis perception prevails at global perception. Pakistan must solve these issues indigenously which need dialogue or security enforcement. However, on a global scale, Pakistan and China must coordinate and allocate a certain percentage of funds and human resource to counter the false perception created by the Indian deep dive operation against CPEC and Pakistan.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Shah, Mudassar Hussain, Saima Kausar and Danish Sarwar. 2022. "Crisis Perception on CPEC: How India is Using Regional and Pakistan’s Domestic Issues in Manufacturing Global Pseudo Discourse." <em>NDU Journal </em>36: 38-49.</p> Mudassar Hussain Shah; Saima Kausar , Danish Sarwar Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/128 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0500 PAKISTAN AT THE CROSSROAD: HYBRID WARFARE AND THE PARALLELS BETWEEN BANGLA AND BALOCH MOVEMENTS https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/129 <p><em>In a hybrid war, the first casualty starts by undercutting truth. The intricate pattern of falsehood in the saga of Bangladesh has been carved and circulated by victors who constructed a rancorous and barbaric image of Pakistan. The exaggerated accounts and propaganda effectively disseminated, albeit the administrative weakness of the federal government in Pakistan. The fragile political situation in 1971 contributed to a manipulative and decisive hybrid war by India. This study argues that vicious cycle of hybrid war by India against Pakistan is increasingly taking roots in Balochistan, the largest and strategically located Pakistani province. The organized efforts of India are aimed at the exploitation of ethno-linguistic fault lines within Pakistan. Indian government systematically backed the militant elements in Balochistan via financial, military, and diplomatic sustenance for undermining the amity and security in Pakistan. This research paper attempts to uncover and focus on bypassed facts and myths for producing a more holistic insight into the tragic dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971. Moreover, the paper comprehensively divulges the aims and objectives of the Balochistan insurgency for broadly understanding the stakes and parallels in the unfolding new episode of hybrid war by India against Pakistan.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p><em>Rashid, Dr Asma. 2022. "Pakistan at the Crossroads: Hybrid Warfare and the Parallels between Bangla and Baloch Movements." NDU Journal 36: 50-62.</em></p> Dr. Asma Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/129 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0500 NEXUS BETWEEN CONFLICT, ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN PAKISTAN https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/130 <p><em>This paper investigates the nexus between conflict, economic integration, and economic growth in Pakistan through time series data utilisation for the period 1970-2021, dividing it into two parts, the pre-cold war, and the post-cold war period. The study quantitatively evaluates the impact of FDI, unemployment, trade and the presence/absence of war on regional economic integration and economic growth in Pakistan. Before the descriptive statistics and regression analysis, the pre-estimation tests were carried out to ensure that the variables are stationary and there is no multicollinearity on the independent variables, thus eliminating spurious regressions. From the regression analysis, unemployment was found to be insignificant in explaining economic growth in Pakistan whilst FDI, trade and regional economic integration post-cold war were found significant in explaining the impact of regional economic integration on economic growth in Pakistan. The paper argues that war or conflict negatively influences economic growth in Pakistan. On the other hand, the absence of war or conflict enables regional economic integration to attain optimum influence on economic growth at national, regional, and international levels. Therefore, the study recommends policies that encourage a conflict-free environment at national, regional, and global levels to reap the best possible benefits from regional economic integration.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Naqvi, Syed Qaswar Abbas. 2022. "Nexus between Conflict, Economic Integration and Economic Growth in Pakistan." <em>NDU Journal </em>36: 63-77.</p> Syed Qaswar Abbas Naqvi Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/130 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0500