NDU Journal https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site <p>NDU Journal is an annual publication of <a href="https://ndu.edu.pk/issra/index.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National Defence University</a>, the premier institution for security and strategic studies. The journal is a unique publication of the country, which primarily deals with the national security issues of Pakistan. The journal has its own standing among the students, researchers, experts, policy makers and intelligentsia. Keeping the flag high, the articles appearing in the journal are selected after a rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan duly recognises its regular publishing since 1987 and indexes it in its Journal Recognition System (HJRS).</p> en-US editor@ndu.journal (Editor) webmaster@ndu.journal (Webmaster) Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 AI INTEGRATION IN INDIAN MILITARY: APPRAISAL OF SECURITY APPREHENSIONS FOR SOUTH ASIA https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/179 <p>The expeditious development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in recent decades has changed the strategic dynamics and nature of warfare. Military organisations are working on multifaceted dimensions to ensure security, as AI is one of the most significant technologies changing the character of conflict. This trend is also apparent in South Asia, as the Indian military has actively integrated AI into its defence sector. India's militarisation of artificial intelligence vividly impacts South Asia's security dynamics. By applying the security dilemma framework of realism, the paper expounds on the implications of Indian AI militarisation on South Asia's strategic stability,<br>specifically Pakistan. Qualitative research methodology is employed to delineate the repercussions of Indian AI militarisation on the security framework of South Asia - a region historically signified by intense security dilemma, stability-instability paradox and multiple wars. Thus, by examining the critical domains of India’s incorporation of AI in its defence sector, this paper unveils the challenges to the security and stability of the South Asian region and puts forth the recommendation that Pakistan should take concrete steps towards the integration of AI in its defence sector by contemplating the discernible security concerns due to Indian AI militarisation.</p> Ms. Tayyaba Khurshid; Mr. Hamza Zaman Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/179 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500 INFORMATION WARFARE AND TWITTER: A NEXUS OF INDIAN SHADOW NETWORKS ON BALOCHISTAN ISSUE https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/180 <p>Owing to its several fault lines, Pakistan is one of the target countries of FifthGeneration Hybrid Warfare (5GHW) attacks. These attacks are conducted by adversaries, both external and internal, more readily targeting the Balochistan province of the country, which is inhabited by a plethora of non-state actors and violent non-state actors. External adversarial powers seek to create shadow organisations to subvert the state through information operations. The paper aims to study shadow organisations subverting the state through information operations. It seeks to identify the shadow organisations in the digital security environment of Pakistan, followed by the exploration of the tactics employed by these organisations to disseminate content effectively, identify the themes used by these organisations in their textual content, and check the level of bot activity in the digital presence of these shadow organisations. The paper's findings placed the shadow organisations in the hashtag Balochistan Is Not Pakistan dataset. It identified the employment of the tactics (hashtags, mentions, retweets, bot activity) connecting shadow organisations, state-recognized terrorist organisations, and external adversarial countries, i.e., India. Furthermore, the themes identified in the dataset identified the frequency of employment, solidifying the assumption that the end goal is state subversion.</p> Ms Ayesha Chaudhary; Dr Zeeshan Zaighum, Mr Rana Faizan Ali Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/180 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500 POLITICAL POLARIZATION ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY PAKISTAN https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/181 <p>Political polarisation unveils the degree of divergence of opinions regarding political matters in society and might, in turn, rely on the development of economic outcomes. Political polarisation builds policy gaps, obstructs governance and impedes policy implementation. The paper delves into the complex issues of political polarisation in Pakistan, shedding light on the deviation of opinions within the society and its subsequent impact on economic consequences. With a nucleus on the lack of political harmony among political parties and political and religious elites' distortion of ideological viewpoints, the research seeks to uncover the root causes of polarization. The study aims to give a comprehensive overview of the issues surrounding political polarisation in Pakistan, suggest strategies that imply curtailing polarisation from society and present insights that can update tactics for encouraging a more organised and inclusive political environment.</p> Dr. Raja Amir Hanif; Ms Iqra Sultan, Mr. M. Haqeeq Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/181 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500 SEEKING A COLLABORATIVE SECURITY ALLIANCE FRAMEWORK FOR PAKISTAN https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/182 <p>Pakistan confronts enormous security challenges, most of which are owed to the<br>ongoing global contestation between China and the US, with Pakistan as the former’s<br>strategic partner and India aligned with the latter and ready to counter China. These<br>challenges have, over time, morphed into an enduring existential threat to Pakistan,<br>which is way beyond its inherent capacity to manage. The enormity of the danger is<br>primarily owed to the conspiracy of multiple regional and extra-regional hostile actors,<br>the most significant of which is India, assisted by countries attempting to block China’s<br>rise as a global power. Notwithstanding its nuclear deterrence, Pakistan faces an asymmetric situation with India in a conventional military realm, which is further compounded by the readiness of the US-led West to assist India in its military upgradation programme. Consequently, this phenomenon exacerbates Pakistan’s security dilemma, threatening its survival, warranting disproportionate national resources for physical security at the cost of political, social and economic development and further adding to its national security vulnerabilities. A collaborative security alliance with China is needed to assuage Pakistan's security concerns fully.</p> Dr. Muhammad Arshad Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/182 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500 CYBER-EQUATION BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN: PRETEXT OF STABILITY-INSTABILITY PARADOX https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/183 <p>Humanity has evolved over the centuries, inventing new offences and counter-defense, Cyber-security threats are one of the newly emerged challenges of the 21st century that the lessons of the past are unaccustomed to dealing with. India and Pakistan have a<br>history of complex rivalry. However, adding the cyber-security threats into the matrix complicates it further. The research evaluates the impacts and prospects of the cybersecurity equation between the two mutually deterred nuclear rivals. From the standpoint of the stability-instability paradox, the research has explained the strategic balance between the two states in general and in the domain of cyber-security in particular. Research is exploratory as it explores the linkage between two variables (The cyber-security equation and the stability-instability paradox). It follows a qualitative design and case-study method. Data has been obtained from secondary<br>sources. Evidence presented in the paper suggests an increase in the number of cyberattacks and counter-attacks between India and Pakistan, with an overall disturbance of the strategic balance. The hegemonic aspirations of India and the uncompromising defensive posture of Pakistan can pave the way for the rupture of cyber-brinkmanship into a nuclear escalation. Therefore, the study proposes that both states acknowledge the need to establish cyber-security regimes and take preventive measures to spare the future from the shadow of unseen wars.</p> Ms. Ayesha Shaikh; Mr. Gulraiz Iqbal, Mr. Ammar Hassan Sajjad Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/183 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500 INDIA’S STRATEGIC INFORMATION WARFARE: CHALLENGES AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR PAKISTAN https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/184 <p>Unprecedented digital innovation and technological advancements shape warfare in the 21st century. States and non-state actors prefer cost-effective, non-traditional approaches to subjugating the enemy. This transition has primarily occurred due to the<br>increasing human and material costs of the traditional methods of warfare. Pakistan is one of the countries dealing with the threat of hybrid warfare from its opponents, mainly India. Political instability, ethnic nationalism, religious extremism, and other socioeconomic challenges are all strengthening the state's vulnerability to hybrid threats. Indian propaganda has been aggravated after the BJP’s ascension to power and its pursuit of extremist Hindutva ideology. The EU Disinfo lab research has conclusively revealed misleading perception management. However, it requires detailed investigation at the academic and policy levels. Therefore, this study focuses on how India uses information warfare tools as a political weapon to subjugate Pakistan. It concludes that the concept of ‘information warfare’ has always existed. Still, it has now taken the form of social engineering through social media campaigns, academic networks, societal disruption, etc. Pakistan is in a precarious position in this context due to its multiple challenges on both the external and internal fronts.</p> Ms. Minahil Shawal Afridi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/184 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500 BOOK Review https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/185 <p>Prisoners of Geography "Ten Maps that Explain Everything about the World" was published in 2015. The book's writer is Tim Marshall, who is a British journalist, author, and broadcaster and he specializes in foreign affairs and international diplomacy. The publishers of the book are Elliott &amp; Thompson in (UK) and Scribner in the (US). This book explains geopolitical events through the lens of geography and<br>situations in several vital regions of the world. These include Russia, China, the United States, Europe, the Arab World, Pakistan and India, Africa, Korea and Japan, Latin America, and the Arctic (primarily addressing the geopolitics of the race for Arctic resources). By reading this book, readers will be able to understand how a country's geographic position has a significant impact on both its success and its level of power, and how this has determined the outcomes of significant global events for centuries.</p> Ms. Shahzadi Irrum Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ndujournal.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/185 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0500